Migration is a phenomenon that grows every year and affects in some way virtually every country. Many migrants move voluntarily – looking perhaps for economic opportunities, or for different lifestyles. But for others, migration is not a choice. More and more people are forced to flee their homes and communities because of many factors including conflicts, persecution, disasters and poverty. It is their plight that is the focus of the 2012 World Disasters Report. 

Forced migration: the dynamics of displacement and response
Chapter 1: More than 72 million forced migrants face dangers in transit such as people smuggling and trafficking, and exploitation and abuse on reaching their destinations. They face serious humanitarian and human rights challenges. With their support systems removed, they are often unable to access basic health, welfare and education services. They may lose links with families and communities, and experience severe socio-economic loss and impoverishment.
Vulnerability and protection: reducing risk and promoting security for forced migrants
Chapter 2: Forced migration is a significant cause of vulnerability and a major threat to protection. The increasing complexity and unpredictability of violence and conflict accentuate vulnerability and diminish the scope for protection. At the same time, increasingly restrictive migration regimes worldwide reflect shrinking protection space for forced migrants. 

This chapter outlines displacement vulnerabilities and their root causes and discusses how people find protection. It reviews gaps in political frameworks and looks at challenges in enhancing protection.
Health on the move: the impact of forced displacement on health
Chapter 3: Good health depends on resources in the environment, control of disease threats and coordination of preventive and curative provision. Forced displacement represents a challenge to each of these elements that can last for years.

After sudden-onset disasters, immediate health-issues typically concern food, water, sanitation and shelter. The March 2011 Japanese tsunami, the floods and landslides in the Philippines following Tropical Storm Washi in December 2011, and tornadoes in the US state of Kentucky in March 2012 all resulted in acute health challenges. 
Forced migration in an urban context: relocating the humanitarian agenda
Chapter 4: In the 1980s and 1990s, displacement was synonymous with camps, but today approximately half the world’s estimated 10.5 million refugees and at least 13 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) live in urban areas. 

Several high-profile situations of urban displacement have occurred in the last decade, including Iraq, Sudan, Somalia, Nairobi (Kenya), Sana’a (Yemen) and Haiti.
Development and displacement: hidden losers from a forgotten agenda
Chapter 5: There is a well-developed international humanitarian system to respond to people displaced by conflict and disaster, but millions are displaced every year for other reasons. 

Development is a major driver of displacement and a challenge for humanitarian actors. The construction of dams, for example, forces people to move from areas to be flooded. When governments set aside land for parks or urban renewal, people are also forced out. And even when governments plan resettlement policies, affected communities are almost always worse off.
Who pays? Who profits? The costs and impacts of forced migration
Chapter 6: This chapter highlights the gap in understanding of the economic and financial aspects of forced migration. The social consequences of forced migration are a mainstream humanitarian concern, but it also produces economic costs.

Despite the enormous global budget, there is little economic analysis of outcomes. No business would escape this scrutiny.

What are the costs? Who pays? Who benefits? Should we put a price on humanitarianism? There is a mass of data on numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), but little analysis of the funding of humanitarian programmes for forced migrants. 
Forced migration and the humanitarian challenge: tackling the agenda
Chapter 7: The complex nature of contemporary disasters and conflicts creates the potential to uproot very large numbers of people. Forced migration is now a global phenomenon, presenting vast challenges to governments, donors, international institutions and humanitarian actors. 

This chapter reviews the governance of humanitarian response, efforts to enhance community-based responses and solve protracted displacement, and climate change and displacement.
Additional resources
For the first time we are using the web to give you a better insight into the last 12 months in terms of natural and technological disasters, plus we have developed a variety of ways for you to explore the topic of migration.
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The report is available in the chapters linked from this page, but you may also download the entire document as a PDF below.
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© 2012 International Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies
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